Secondary victims revisited: Liverpool Women’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust v Ronayne – Cloisters

‘Claims by secondary victims are subject to well-known control mechanisms. The classic statement of which came in Alcock v Chief Constable of the South Yorkshire Police[1]:

there must be a close tie of love and affection with the person killed, injured or imperilled;
there must be proximity in time and space to the incident or its immediate aftermath;
the incident or its immediate aftermath must have been directly perceived;
the psychiatric injury must be induced by a sudden shocking event.’

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Cloisters, 14th April 2016